In Vivo Solid–Phase Microextraction: An Efficient Sample Preparation Method for Plant and Tissue Bioanalysis

Document Type: Original research article


Department of Amad and Defense Technology, Supreme University and Research Institute of National Defense and Strategic Researches, Tehran, Iran



Generally, traditional bioanalytical methods including in vitro or ex vivo are associated with the limitations and drawbacks in the living systems analysis. However, the in vivo sampling technique is an excellent procedure to improve accuracy and performing the on–line and in–situ biological analyses. In this regard, solid–phase microextraction (SPME) as a simple, sensitive, solventless and noninvasive sample preparation technique has been considered by researchers in in vivo sampling, in recent years. This review briefly describes the use of in vivo SPME as a sample preparation method to study the living systems involving plants and animals (especially metabolomics and clinical researches). Also, biocompatible coatings and design innovations that use to enhance the sensitivity and functioning of the method have been investigated. Finally, the challenges facing the development in vivo SPME method are investigated and forthcoming trends for the better performance of bioanalytical method are offered.



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