Document Type: Review article
Department of Chemistry, Shahid Bahonar University, Kerman, I.R. Iran
Department of Chemistry, Payame Noor University, P.O. Box 19395-4697, Tehran, I.R. Iran
Considerable interest in the analysis of urea in clinical, environmental and industrial samples has generated diverse research activities in the fabrication of urea biosensors over the past decades. These activities have been directed towards the use of wide ranging materials, including conducting polymers, non-conducting polymers, redox dyes, redox polymers, oxides, clays, zeolite, sol gel, carbon pastes, epoxy activated support and nanomaterials, for the immobilisation of urease and its use for the detection of urea. Many of these activities have also employed various modes of transduction, including amperometric, potentiometric, conductometric, optical, manometric, thermal and piezoelectric detection, for reliable biosensing of urea. This article reviews the various research efforts that have been carried out over the past decades on the construction and utilisation of urea biosensors for urea analysis in various samples.