Extraction of Cetirizine Using Magnetic Nanoparticles of Hengam Island Sand and Determination by HPLC

Document Type: Original research article


1 Department of Chemistry, Central Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

2 Department of Chemistry, Central Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

3 Department of Chemistry, Varamin (Pishva) Branch, Islamic Azad University, Varamin, Iran



In present work Hengam island sands were used for preparation of new magnetic nano-adsorbent. These sands have intrinsic magnetic properties due to possess specific compounds such as Fe3O4. It was modified by surface activator agent namely 3-(Glycidyloxypropyl)trimethoxysilane to produce effective nano-adsorbent. After preparation of this nano-adsorbent, Its physical and chemical properties was verified using several techniques such as FTIR, TGA/DTG, XRD and SEM. Nano-adsorbent was used as a solid phase to extraction of cetirizine from aqueous solutions and then its determination was done by HPLC. Effective analytical parameters such as pH of sample solution (pH=4), dosage of nano-adsorbent (100 mg), zero charge (pHz=5), breakthrough volume (500 mL) and contact time (15 min) were evaluated and optimized. Furthermore, figures of merit parameters such as precision (RSD=1.44%), limit of detection (LOD=1.1 µg L-1) and linear dynamic range (LDR=0.01-250 mg L-1) were obtained. Also for validation the accuracy of method, amount of cetirizine in two real samples were successfully determined.


[1]        T. Dyakonov, A. Muir, H. Nasri, D. Toops and A. Fatmi, Isolation and Characterization of Cetirizine Degradation Product: Mechanism of Cetirizine Oxidation, Pharm. Res. 27 (2010) 1318–1324.

[2]        R. Vijayalakshmi, S. Bhargavi and M.D. Dhanaraju, Simultaneous UV Spectrophotometric determination of cetirizine and dextromethorphan in tablet dosage form, J. Chem. 7 (2010) S314-S318.

[3]        K.Y. Tam and L. Quere, Multiwavelength spectrophotometric resolution of the micro-equilibria of cetirizine, Anal. Sci. 17 (2001) 1203-1208.

[4]        A.F.A. Youssef and R A. Farghly, formation in conductimetric determination of some antihistamines in pharmaceutical formulations, Canadian J. Anal. Sci. Spec. 51 (2006) 288-296.

[5]        E. Baltes, R. Coupez, L. Brouwers and J. Gobert, Novel ionophore for the potentiometric determination of cetirizine hydrochloride in pharmaceutical formulations and human urine, Int. J. Electrochem. Sci. 4 (2009) 396-406.

[6]        A.M.Y. Jaber, H.A. Al-Sherife, M.M. Al-Omari and A.A. Badwan, Determination of cetirizine dihydrochloride, related impurities and preservatives in oral solution and tablet dosage forms using HPLC, J. Pharm. Biomed. Anal. 36 (2004) 341-350.

[7]        B. Paw, G. Misztal, H. Hopkala and J. Drozd, Development and validation of a HPLC method for the determination of cetirizine in pharmaceutical dosage forms, Pharmazie 57 (2002) 313-315.

[8]        H. Eriksen, R. Houghton, R. Green and J. Scarth, Determination of cetirizine in human plasma by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, Chromatographia 55 (2002) S145-S149.

[9]        M.F. Zaater, Y. R. Tahboub and N. M. Najib, RP-LC method for the determination of cetirizine in serum, J. Pharm. Biomed. Anal. 22 (2000) 739-744.

[10]       A.F. Shoukry, N.T. Abdel-Ghani, Y.M. Issa and H.M. Ahmed, Plastic membrane selective electrode for cetirizinium ion based on cetirizinium-tetraphenylborate ion-pair", Electroanal. 11 (1999) 443-446.

[11]       M. Ghaeadi, K. Niknam, A. Shokrollahi and E. Niknam, Determination of Cu, Fe, Pb and Zn by Flame-AAS after Preconcentration Using Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate Coated Alumina Modified with Complexing Agent, J. Chim. Chem. Soc. 56 (2013) 150-157.

[12]       F. Sabermahani and M.A. Taher, Application of a new water-soluble polyethylenimine polymer sorbent for simultaneous separation and preconcentration of trace amounts of copper and manganese and their determination by atomic absorption spectrophotometry, Anal. Chim. Acta. 565 (2006) 152-159.

[13]       K. Pyrzynska and K. Kilian, On-line sorption-based systems for determination of cadmium with atomic spectrometry detectors, Water Res. 41 (2007) 2839-2848.

[15]       M. Soylak, L. Elci, and M. Dogan, Preconcentration of trace amounts of tungsten on Amberlite XAD-7 for its spectrophotometric determination in hot spring water, Fresenius J. Anal. Chem. 251 (1995) 308-310.

[16]       A.M. Yusof, M.M. Rahman and A.K.H Wood, Adsorption of some toxic elements from water samples on modified activated carbon, activated carbon and red soil using neutron activation analysis, J. Radioanal. Nucl. Chem. 271 (2007) 191-197.

[17]       M. Ghaedi, F. Ahmadi, and M. Soylak, Preconcentration and separation of nickel, copper and cobalt using solid phase extraction and their determination in some real samples, J. Hazar. Mater. 147 (2007) 226-231.

[18]       M.C.C. Urban, R.M. Mainardes and M.P. D. Gremiao, Development and validation of HPLC method for analysis of dexamethasone acetate in microemulsions, Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. 45 (2009) 87-92.

[19]       B.J. Kirby, Micro and nanoscale fluid mechanics: Transport in microfluidic devices, Cambridge University Press (2010).