Determination of Free Amino Acids in Fertilizer Samples by Switchable Hydrophilic Solvent-Based Extraction (SHSE) Followed by HPLC-UV

Document Type : Full research article

Authors

1 Assistant professor, Soil and Water Research Institute, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Karaj, Iran,

2 Associate Professor, Soil and Water Research Institute, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Karaj, Iran

Abstract

In the present work, switchable hydrophilic solvent-based extraction (SHSE) followed by high performance liquid chromatography with UV detection (HPLC-UV) was used to determine free amino acids in fertilizer samples. During the phase transformation of SHSE, the organic phase appeared to effectively capture the target analytes. In this extraction technique, 200 μL of a water-immiscible solvent (dipropylamine) is used, which can be solubilized in the acidic aqueous phase. Phase separation is then brought about by the addition of sodium hydroxide. The variables affecting this method were optimized to achieve the best extraction efficiency. The optimized conditions included: volume of sample 25 mL, volume of extraction solvent 200 μL, and extraction time 2 min. Under the optimal experimental conditions, good detection limits (0.0006-0.0021 µmol ml-1), linearities (R2 > 0.997), and precision (relative standard deviation less than 5.0%) were obtained. Finally, the developed method was successfully applied to the determination of target analytes in different types of fertilizer samples and acceptable recoveries (> 97.2%) were obtained.

Keywords


  • A. Abo Sedera, A. Amany, A. El-Latif, L. A.A. Bader, and S. M. Rezk, Effect of NPK mineral fertilizer levels and foliar application with humic and amino acids on yield and quality of strawberry, Egypt. J. Appl. Sci., 25 (2010) 154–169.
  • A. Faten, A. M. Shaheen, A. A. Ahmed, and R. M. Asmaa, The effect of foliar application of urea and amino acids mixtures as antioxidants on the growth and yield and characteristics of squash, Res. J. Agric. Biol. Sci., 6 (2010) 583–588.
  • A. El-Desouky, F. H. Ismaeil, A. L. Wanas, E. S. L. Fathy, M. M. Abd El-All, and M. M. Abd, Effect of yeast extract, amino acids and citric acid on physioanatomical aspects and productivity of tomato plants grown in late summer season, Minufiya, J. Agric. Res., 36 (2011) 859–884.
  • Li, J. Ma, Q. Li, S. Fan, L. Fan, H. Ma, Y. Zhang and L. Zheng. "Determination of 35 Free Amino Acids in Tea Using Ultra-Performance Liquid Chromatography Coupled With Quadrupole Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry." Front. nutr. 8 (2021) 1-14.
  • Kazem Souri, Aminochelate fertilizers: the new approach to the old problem; a review, Open Agric., 1 (2016) 118-123.
  • Liu, Measurement of blood plasma amino Acids in ultrafiltrates by high-performance liquid chromatography with automatic precolumn O-phthaldialdehyde derivatization, Methods mol. biol., 159 (2000) 123-140.
  • Friedman, Applications of the ninhydrin reaction for analysis of amino acids, peptides, and proteins to agricultural and biomedical sciences, J. Agric. Food Chem., 52 (2004) 385-406 .
  • J.G.Castro, J.L. Hernández, J.S. Lozano and M.J.O. Concha, Determination of amino acids in green beans by derivatization with phenylisothiocianate and high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection, J. Chromatogr. Scien, 35 (1997) 181-185.
  • Liang, J. Xu, L. Guo and F. Song, Dynamic liquid-phase microextraction with HPLC for the determination of phoxim in water samples, J. Sep. Sci. 29(2006) 366–370.
  • R. Fontana, M. M. de Toro, J. C. Altamirano, One-step derivatization and preconcentration microextraction technique for determination of bisphenol A in beverage samples by gas chromatography−mass spectrometry, J. Agric. Food Chem. 59 (2011) 3559-3565.
  • Igarashi and T. Yottuyanagi, Homogeneous liquid–liquid extraction by pH dependent phase separation with a fluorocarbon ionic surfactant and its application to the preconcentration of porphyrin compounds. Microchim. Acta, 106 (1992) 37-44.
  • Sudo and S. Igarashi, Homogeneous liquid–liquid extraction method for spectrofluorimetric determination of chlorophyll a, Talanta, 43 (1996) 233–237.
  • Berijani, M. Sadigh and E. Pournamdari, J. Chromatogr. Sci., 54 (2016) 1061–1067.
  • G. Jessop, D.J. Heldebrant, X. Li, C.A. Eckert and C.L. Liotta, Green chemistry: reversible nonpolar-to-polar solvent, Nature, 436 (2005) 1102.
  • Pollet, C.A. Eckert and C.L. Liotta, Switchable solvents, Chem. Sci., 2 (2011) 609–614.
  • Lasarte-Aragones, R. Lucena, S. Cardenas and M. Valcarcel, Talanta, 131 (2015) 645–649.
  • Rameshgar, K.S. Hasheminasab, L. Adlnasab and H. Ahmar, Switchable-hydrophilicity solvent-based microextraction combined with gas chromatography for the determination of nitroaromatic compounds in water samples, J. Sep. Sci. 40 (2017) 3114–3119.
  • Phan, D. Chiu, D.J. Heldebrant, H. Huttenhower, E. John, X. Li, P. Pollet, R. Wang, C.A. Eckert, C.L. Liotta and P.G. Jessop, Switchable solvents consisting of amidine/alcohol or guanidine/alcohol mixtures, Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 47 (2008) 539-545.
  • G. Jessop, S.M. Mercer, D.J. Heldebrant, CO2 -triggered switchable solvents, surfactants, and other materials, Energy. Environ. Sci. 5 (2012) 7240-7253.
  • Ahmadi Abd, K.S. Hasheminasab, M. payehghadr and K. Shahbazi, Measurement of free amino acids in soil and agricultural fertilizer samples by optimization of high performance liquid chromatography equipped with ultraviolet detector, J. Appl. Chem., 16 (2021) 21-32
  • G. Jessop, D.J. Heldebrant, X. Li, C.A. Eckert and C.L. Liotta, Green chemistry: reversible nonpolar-to-polar solvent, Nature, 436 (2005) 1102-1102.