In collaboration with Payame Noor University and Iranian Chemical Science and Technologies Association

Document Type : Full research article


Department of Chemistry, Payame Noor University, PO box 19395-4697, Tehran, Iran


In this research, Fe3O4 and Fe3O4/Graphene materials were prepared and characterized via different techniques such as X-ray diffractometer (XRD), Vibrating Sample Magnetometer (VSM), and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). The efficiency of prepared samples were investigated by elimination of methylene blue as a cationic dye from aqueous solutions via different methods such as adsorption, photodegradation and sonodegradation processes. The results indicated that the degradation rate of methylene blue by Fe3O4/Graphene nanocomposite under sonocatalytic process was considerably higher than the adsorption and photocatalytic procedures. Sonocatalytic degradation of methylene blue by Fe3O4/Graphene nanocomposite could be explained by the mechanisms of hot spots and sonoluminescence. The degradation pathways between sonocatalytic oxidation and methylene blue solution was described. The results showed that the conjugate structure of nitrogen-sulfur heterocyclic material was broken and aromatic ring was oxidized to open the ring. Methylene blue molecules were finally mineralized to H2O and CO2 in the sonocatalytic degradation process. Furthermore, the figures-of-merit based on electric energy consumption (electrical energy per order (EEO)) were estimated in the degradation of methylene blue in the presence of Fe3O4/Graphene nanocomposite. The results showed that less energy is consumed during the sonodegradation of methylene blue in the presence of Fe3O4/Graphene nanocomposite in comparison with photodegradation procedure.